By Annemarie Surlykke, Paul E. Nachtigall, Richard R. Fay, Arthur N. Popper (eds.)
Two teams of animals, bats and odontocetes (toothed whales), have independently constructed the facility to orient and realize prey by way of biosonar (echolocation). This lively mechanism of orientation permits those animals to function lower than low gentle stipulations. Biosonar is a conceptual evaluate of what's identified approximately biosonar in bats and odontocetes. Chapters are written by means of bat and odontocetes specialists, leading to collaborations that not just research info on either animals, but additionally evaluate and distinction mechanisms. This booklet presents a special perception that might aid increase our figuring out of biosonar in either animal teams.
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Extra resources for Biosonar
The role of different calls and/or call components can influence a bat’s perception of its surroundings and potential targets (Simmons and Stein 1980). Calls at lower frequencies and with longer duration may have a greater effective detection range but at the cost of less precise location of targets. Shorter, broadband FM calls provide less range but better range resolution and prey localization (Simmons and Stein 1980). , Roverud and Grinnell 1985). , Kalko et al. 1998; Siemers et al. 2001), and two examples clearly make this point.
Toothed whale signals are much shorter than bat signals, but the way beaked whales switch from long FM signals in the search and approach phase to short, broadband signals during the buzz provides an appealing analogy to the decreased duration of bat calls. Although shorter duration is likely not necessary to avoid pulse-echo overlap, the shorter signal duration may combine with fast repetition rate to facilitate more accurate ranging of close prey items at this stage (Johnson et al. 2006). This can best be envisioned using a recently developed visual representation of the auditory scene of a tagged whale, termed an echogram, which is constructed like the output of a fish finder by stacking traces of echolocation signal and echo energy from the start of each click on top of each other (Johnson et al.
2011). In an echogram from a Blainville’s beaked whale, the temporal resolution increases drastically when the whale switches to a buzz, allowing for much more detailed tracking of the spatial relationship of predator and prey (Fig. 13; Johnson et al. 2004). During feeding buzzes, most low duty cycle bats reduce call amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth with increasing biosonar repetition rate (Kalko and Schnitzler 1993; Kalko 1995), possibly because the fast-twitch muscles responsible for sound production are not capable of producing loud broadband signals at very high repetition rates.