Assessment and Testing: A Survey of Research by Robert Wood

By Robert Wood

Masking the choice of questions for exams, together with a number of selection trying out and assessing useful paintings and language checking out, this transparent account of the nation of study might be of curiosity to examiners and academics in addition to different academic pros.

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The reliability-validity trade-off paradox can be seen here. To maximize reliability for a D-study, we would like to restrict the universe of generalization holding constant certain r-facets and taking a large sample from one or two important r-facets. But by restricting the universe of generalization for a reliability study we have severely restricted the universe of admissible observations of concern in a validity study. The question, then, is how well can we generalize from our restricted test score to the score a student would earn on tests generated by all possible combinations of r- and v-facets in the universe of admissible observations?

Recently (SolanoFlores, under review), I submitted the notion that ELL testing can be 38 Guillermo Solano-Flores examined as a communication process from a sociolinguistic perspective. In this communication process, the ELL student and the assessment system interact. For example, the assessment system tests the students, ELLs respond to those tests, and the assessment system interprets those students’ responses. How accurate are views of ELLs as users of English and their native languages and how appropriately the assessment system uses language to test the students and to interpret their responses ultimately influences the validity of scores.

The 8 schools (and the 10 teachers) participating in Ashman and Gillies’ study were a representative (although not random) sample from this population (Gillies, personal communication, February 12, 2007). This description suggests a multilevel, multidimensional characterization of the population. First are characteristics of students, including socio-economic status, race or ethnic background, achievement level, and previous experience with group work. Second are characteristics of teachers, including training in peer learning methods.

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