[Article] The Ambangulu Forest, West Usambara Mountains, by Steven M. Goodman, William T. Stanley, William D. Newmark,

By Steven M. Goodman, William T. Stanley, William D. Newmark, Kim M. Howell

Ambangulu wooded area is likely one of the few final tracts of normal woodland among 800 and 1200 m within the West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. it can be the biologically richest zone within the quarter however it is threatened by way of unlawful felling of bushes bushes, wind harm, grazing and skimming cattle, and selection of fuel-wood and development poles. A proposed undertaking goals to guard the wooded area and gain local community even as.

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Extra info for [Article] The Ambangulu Forest, West Usambara Mountains, Tanzania: a threatened Eastern Arc forest

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2007:34; Chauveau 2006: 214 with reference to Scott 1976). As well as being given indefinite rights to the land, rights which may be transferred from one generation to the next, new comers are obliged to provide their labour, fulfill particular duties and work to support their tuteur and the com- introduction 13 munity (Chauveau et al. 2006, 2; Le Meur 2006). The variations of tutorat highlight its flexibility (Chauveau et al. 2004, 9). , 14). However, pressure on land resources, the cash transference of land—whether for sale or loan—, and the ‘intense politicization of land issues’ has had profound effects on the cultural norms and practices surrounding tutorat (Ibid).

Began to focus their efforts on coastal rather than interior trade (Barry 1981: 28–29). Varied trading opportunities allowed the Mandinka to spread throughout West Africa and to establish Mandinka as the language of commerce (Faal 1991, 10; Quinn 1972, 7). Farmers in the region have grown and marketed a variety of crops since the fourteenth century, if not earlier (Carney and Watts 1991, 654). Prior to the arrival of European travelers and traders, farmers 1 Kombo Central, Kombo East, Kombo St.

Carney and Watts (1990, 1991) have highlighted the effects of rice mechanization, contract farming and the commoditization of rice on the division of labour and women’s control over their rice crops. Carney (1992, 1993) has explored the way in which transformation in the wetlands, through agricultural diversification and subsequent year-round cultivation, has heightened gender conflicts; male household heads have made new claims to female family labour and low-lying land, previously controlled by female farmers.

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