Artemisia annua - Pharmacology and Biotechnology by Elisabeth Hsu (auth.), Tariq Aftab, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, M.

By Elisabeth Hsu (auth.), Tariq Aftab, Jorge F.S. Ferreira, M. Masroor A. Khan, M. Naeem (eds.)

Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone initially extracted from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L., is a good antimalarial agent, really for multi-drug resistant and cerebral malaria. although, the focus of artemisinin within the plant is particularly low. as the chemical synthesis of artemisinin is complex and never economically possible in view of the terrible yield of the drug, the intact plant is still the one doable resource of artemisinin creation. for this reason, it can be crucial to extend the focus of artemisinin in A. annua to minimize the price of artemisinin dependent antimalarial medicinal drugs. Plant scientists have targeted their efforts on A. annua for a better artemisinin crop yield. With the current quantity, we're bringing jointly the study that is being performed in this plant during the international and destiny chances for scientists and researchers who are looking to paintings on it.

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5 Falciparum Aqueous infusion 20 5 93 (%) 13 % 254 Falciparum ? others Aqueous infusion 35 7 92 (%) ? 48 Aqueous 20 decoction 4 a N = Number of subjects Source Wilcox et al. 2004a, b Falciparum Chang and But (1986) Chang and But (1986) Yao-De et al. (1992) Mueller et al. (2000) Hirt and Lindsey (2000) Mueller et al. 3 Clinical data of 48 malaria patients before and after treatment with A. annua teaa Before treatment After treatment Parasitaemia (P. falciparum) Subjective symptoms Among these Headache Fever Chills Arthralgia Vertigo Others 48 (100 %) 48 (100 %) 4 (8 %) 11 (23 %) 37 27 10 14 6 27 3 1 0 4 1 8 a Eighteen men, 30 women; mean age 38 years, range 18–67 years Source Mueller et al.

2004a, b). Mueller et al. (2000) evaluated two preparations of A. 3). Although numbers were small, they found that both the infusion (1 L of boiling water added to 5 g of dried leaves and mixture left to cool for 1 min before filtering) and the decoction (5 g of dried leaves placed in 1 L of water, boiled for five minutes and then filtered) were effective. In each case, the dose was 250 mL four times a day, although the infusion group was treated for 5 days and the decoction group for 4 days. The results were good in both groups that the given decoction contained less artemisinin and was ineffective in mice.

3). The symptoms Fig. 3 Life Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum 34 M. Naeem et al. Fig. 4 Life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum showing schizogonic and sporogonic cycles occur at the erythrocytic stage. The development of the parasite occurs in two cycles: an asexual one in human being and a sexual one in the mosquito (Fig. 4). 1. In Human: Asexual Cycle (Schizogonic Cycle) When the mosquito bites a human being, hundreds of parasites (called sporozoites) mixed with its saliva pass into the blood of the person being bitten.

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