Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and

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Published by means of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic examine Series.

In a 1971 clinical Committee on Antarctic examine file that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the next commentary: "People who learn sea ice within the Arctic Basin are frequently asked in the event that they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, they usually resolution 'why trouble, it is the usual stuff." Noting this was once "fortunately real to a substantial extent," they further "It is apparent that destiny paintings will count severely at the logistics amenities on hand to permit floor observations past the quick ice facet in any respect seasons of the 12 months. of just about equivalent value stands out as the improvement of tools and recording apparatus suited to use within the polar setting" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: a few Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited by way of G. Deacon, medical Committee on Antarctic examine, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).

Lewis and Weeks made no particular point out of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the 1st passive microwave sensor grew to become operational in December 1972. under a yr later the enormous Weddell Polynya was once saw for the 1st time. might be greater than the other improvement, this unforeseen function illustrated the aptitude to drastically extend our wisdom of sea ice during the program of spaceborne distant sensing. at the same time, it acted as a catalyst for an important raise within the point of study.

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Vol. 68, 369-376, 1995. edited by F. Carsey, pp. , 1992. , R. Lo, G. Poe, R. Savage,and J. F. F. , 90-1, pp. S. , 1987. , 1990. , K. P. F. , Characterization of snow on floating ice and Late winter sea-iceproperties and growth processesin casestudiesof brightnesstemperature changesduring the Bellingshausenand Amundsen Seas, Ant. J. , 29, 9-10, 1994. Monogr. , vol. 68, edited by F. , R. Jaffa, S. Li, and-S. McCullars, Sea-iceand snow-thickness distributions in late winter 1993 pp. , 1992. J. Cavalieri, Reduction of weather and 1994 in the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen effects in the calculation of sea ice concentration from Seas, Ant.

LO o o months in all sectors because most of the seasonalice pack has melted, leaving only thicker ice with greater snow depth close to the continent. The highest wintertime snow depths of about 15 cm are found in the Weddell, Ross,Bellingshausen,and Amundsen Seas. These sectors also have the high- lO 20 3o In-situ snow depth [cm] est interannual variability. The interannual variability in the Weddell Sea decreasesas the seasonprogressesfrom summer to winter, whereasthe variability in the Bellingshausen-AmundsenSeassectorstays high year round with a range of 10 cm to 20 cm.

T. Ulaby, The active and passive microwave response to snow parameters, 1. wetness, J. Geophys. , 85, 1037-1044, 1980. C. K. , Ann. , 17, 125-130, 1993. T. Markus, Code 971, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771. (ReceivedMarch 12, 1997; acceptedAugust6, ANTARCTIC SEA ICE: PHYSICAL PROCESSES, INTERACTIONS AND VARIABILITY ANTARCTIC RESEARCH SERIES VOLUME 74, PAGES 41-67 EAST ANTARCTIC SEA ICE: A REVIEW OF ITS STRUCTURE, PROPERTIESAND DRIFT A. Massom •, I. Allison •'2,V. I. Heil•'3 Data on the physicalcharacteristics of East Antarctic pack ice (20ø160øE)are presented for the period1986-1995.

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