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Extra info for Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete
This mobility will, of course, depend on the porosity and permeability of the concrete, and this in turn will depend on a number of factors, but perhaps most important among these will be the watercement ratio. 7 Gel reaction product The interaction between alkali and reactive silica in the presence of moisture produces an alkali-silica gel which swells on the absorption of water. This gel varies considerably in composition, depending on the composition of the alkali pore fluids and probably on the nature of the particular form of reactive silica, temperature of reaction and concentration of reactants.
M. (1967) Durability of Concrete Structures in Denmark. Danish Technical Press, Copenhagen. 6 . Asgeirsson, H. ) (1975) Proceedings of a Symposium on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction, Preventive Measures. Icelandic Building Research Institute, Reykjavik. 7 . B. ) (1976) Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Effect of Alkalis on the Properties of Concrete. Cement and Concrete Association, Wexham Springs, Slough, UK. 8 . Diamond, S. ) (1978) Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Effects of Alkalis in Cement and Concrete.
There is also evidence that at least under laboratory conditions partially dehydrated silica gel can be rehydrated and will re-expand when additional water is added to the specimen. However, dried gel that has become white and carbonated cannot be reconstituted and is not readily soluble in water. 9 The observed effects of alkali-silica reaction Concrete structures affected by alkali-silica reaction typically show at least one of the following features: cracking, expansion and misalignments of structural elements, gel exudations and spalls referred to as ‘pop-outs’.