By Deborah P. Britzman
Makes use of psychoanalytic theories of studying to discover modern concerns in schooling.
Read or Download After-Education: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Psychoanalytic Histories of Learning PDF
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Extra resources for After-Education: Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, and Psychoanalytic Histories of Learning
But what was lost, when it came to the education of adults, was the problem of where the adult’s imagination might come from and the question of how theory emerges from the strangely singular encounter of the analytic session, meandering through the transference and counter-transference. These problems of imagination and theory are intractable, because in professional training it is difﬁcult to pry apart the learning of ideas from the learning of authority, a dilemma of conﬂict that constitutes the indelible signature of the transference.
It may seem, at ﬁrst glance, as if Klein is suggesting an absolute boundary between love and hate, that hate is something we must stop feeling, and love is something we must feel in spite of ourselves. However, to idealize these affective relations, or better, what Klein calls “object relations,” is to forget what in the human is least pedagogical and, at the same time, utterly susceptible to inﬂuence: phantasy. For Klein, envy “is the angry feeling that another person possesses and enjoys something desirable—the envious impulse being to take it away or to spoil it” (1957, 181).
Melanie Klein’s clinical work with very young children and infants laid the foundation for theories of object relations and for her difﬁcult claim that phantasies structure knowledge of both the inside world, by introjection, and by the outside world, by projection. Her insistence on the absolute primacy of phantasies takes us to a very difﬁcult understanding of interiority and knowledge. In bracketing the consideration of outside processes, Klein was able to think about how instinctual terror and defenses against these drives come too early for the human, even as these processes set the conditions for further development.