Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 31 by Barry Saltzman (ed.)

By Barry Saltzman (ed.)

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Atmos. Sci. 45, 63-80. Bacmeister, J. , and Schoeberl, M. R. (1989). Breakdown of vertically propagating gravity waves forced by orography. Submitted for publication. HYDROSTATIC AIRFLOW OVER MOUNTAINS 39 Baines, P. G. (1979). Observations of stratified flow past three-dimensional barriers. J . Geophys. Res. 84, 7834-7838. Baines, P. G. (1987). Upstream blocking and airflow over mountains. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 19, 75-97. Batchelor, G. K. (1967). ” Cambridge Univ. Press, London. Blumen, W. (1965).

The Hawaiian Islands are ideal for this purpose (Table 111). These islands vary in height from 700 to 4300m, and are all exposed to the moist, steady N E trade winds. They lie in the subtropical Pacific Ocean (20-21" N) where the 36 RONALD B. SMITH TABLE Ill. ~. OF H A W A I 1983). ) Concentric 10 10 10 15 700 1400 1400 250 400 250 17W 400 30 50 3000 4300 50 30 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No background rainfall (over the ocean) is small. The only complicating factors are the presence of the trade wind inversion, giving a nonconstant stability and a decreasing wind speed above 3500 meters.

7. STATICSTABILITY VARIATIONS Sharp, vertical gradients in static stability often exist in the atmosphere, and this structure modifies the nature of a mountain-induced disturbance. The tropopause, midtroposphere frontal surfaces, and boundary layer capping inversions are examples of stability structures found in the atmosphere. We discuss the influence of stability structure on mountain waves in two parts. First, we consider effects that can be treated with linear theory, particularly tuned and detuned atmospheres.

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