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Emphasizing a realistic method of prognosis and therapy, this quantity summarizes present info on congenital, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and demanding stipulations of the orbit and adnexa. Highlights contain large dialogue of thyroid-associated orbitopathy, lymphoproliferative problems, and eyelid neoplasms. includes up to date references and diverse new colour photographs.
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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
Concomitant sinus surgery is indicated if sinusitis is present. The refractory nature of orbital abscesses in adolescents and adults is thought to be due to the multiple drug-resistant pathogens, in particular, anaerobic organisms. The majority of patients with orbital cellulitis and abscesses respond to appropriate medical or surgical treatment or to a combination of these. Orbital infections rarely spread posteriorly to the cavernous sinus. Cavernous sinus thrombosis is often heralded by the rapid progression of proptosis and by anesthesia in both the first and second divisions of the trigeminal nerve; in rare cases, by contralateral ophthalmoplegia as well.
In special cases, the biopsy can be performed under either ultrasonographic or CT control. Although a fine-bore needle occasionally yields a sufficient cell block, the specimen is usually limited to cytologic study. This technique may not permit as firm a diagnosis as is possible with larger biopsy specimens, in which light and electron microscopy can be used to evaluate the histologic pattern. See BCSC Section 4, Ophthalmic Pathology and Intraocular Tumors, for more extensive discussion of pathology.
Neuroimaging for Ophthalmologists. for the general ophthalmologist. Focal Points: San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; Clinical Modules 1998, module 8. Lee AG, Brazis PW, Garrity JA, White M. Imaging for neuro-ophthalmic and orbital disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:852-862. et al. Fat-suppressed MR of the orbit and cavernous sinus: comparison of fast spin-echo and conventional spin-echo. Am J Neuroradiol. 1994; 15: 1707- 1714. Newton TH, Bilaniuk LT, eds. Radiology of the Eye and Orbit (Modern Neuroradiology.